Several socio‑economic, cultural, and political elements converged to give birth to modern antisemitism. The process of desegregation of the Jews in western and central Europe was undoubtedly an important factor. The growing presence of Jews in the larger urban centers, their rapid social ascent, their visibility in the liberal professions, in the wor1d of finance, in the press, and in the arts, as well as in left‑wing political movements, provoked violent reactions. These reactions were exacerbated by fantasies entirely divorced from reality: the Jewish minority, representing between 0.3% and 1% of society at large, was described as an occult force, manipulating both capitalism and revolution in order to achieve domination over all nations. This was the central theme of La France Juive by Edouard Drumont (1886) and of the “pioneering” work of the Fourierist Alphonse Toussenel, Les Juifs, rois de l’époque (“The Jews, Kings of the Era,” 1845). The negative, often diabolical, stereotype of the Jew inherited from medieval Christian anti-Judaism, far from disappearing in modern times, reemerged in secularized versions.